The Academy Exchange Magazine, The Higher Education Academy.
Academy Exchange magazine encourages the exchange of ideas, practices, news and support on learning and teaching issues. Issue 6, 2007, focuses on lifelong learning and discusses its changing nature and how HE can help to equip students for a lifetime of learning and re-learning, eg through a “lifelong learning curriculum”.
ASET Code of Practice: A Good Practice Guide for Placement and Other Work-Based Learning Opportunities in Higher Education, 2009, Wilson, J.. Association for Sandwich Education and Training (ASET).
This document is described as “Good Practice for Placements Guides Volume 2” and concentrates on work placements less than 6 months’ duration. Volume 1 focused on 6 months placements. Volume 2 describes good practice for those academics, work providers and students, involved in developing, running, or participating in work-based learning in higher education.Assessment of Work-Based Learning, 2005, Mitchell, K,, (Oxford Brookes University), Link Newsletter (The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network), no. 14, pp 26-27.
For students on hospitality, leisure and tourism programmes, the assessment of learning from 40 week placements focuses on their employability and personal skills and the extent to which they have embraced a self-developmental approach to learning and reflection, as well as knowledge and understanding. The methodology is described.
Beyond placement extinction, 2010, Walker, F., and Bowerman, M.. Graduate Market Trends, Summer 2010, pp 8-11.
This article focuses on an on-going study of the factors influencing a sample of students, those from the Lancashire Business School and the School of Sports, Tourism and the Oudoors of the University of Central Lancaster, as they make decisions about taking up work placements. It summarises the findings and implications of the research. Findings show that there is a variety of reasons affecting these decisions - ranging from student motivation to financial and emotional factors - and point to the need for individual institutions to actively support students in accessing work placements. Interventions made by UCLan to help students and the scope for their further development are described.
Career Perceptions of Undergraduate Tourism Students: a Case Study in Turkey, 2007, Roney, S., and Oztin, P,. Journal of the Higher Education Academy - Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Network (JoHLSTE), Vo. 6, no. 1.
This paper focuses on a sample of 450 Turkish students studying tourism at university level and analyses their perceptions of tourism careers. Their willingness to study tourism and to work in tourism after graduation, and the effects of their work experience on their perceptions, were studied.
The Challenges of Supporting Employer Engaged Students who are Learning in the Workplace, 2009, Bibby, D.,(Bibby Rumbelow Ltd.), Link Newsletter (The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network), no. 23, pp 6-8.
This article considers the roles of academics who are working in the work-place with employers and especially their employees who are enrolled on HE programmes. It looks particularly at the kinds of work-based learning support required by students and explores the needs of the employer organisation itself as it encourages and facilitates learning for its employees.
Developing employability skills through employer engagement in foundation degrees, Hingley, V.(Hotel School, City College Norwich). The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network.
The case study focuses on the development of employability skills in the College’s Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure Foundation Degrees at a time of major curriculum change from a two-year HND programme, with a six month work placement, to a two-year work-based Foundation Degree with enhanced emphasis on work-based learning (WBL). The views of employers, students and tutors about the development and importance of employability skills and attributes are surveyed. For further details and the full case study report go to the Employability Case Studies section of this website.
Embedding employability in postgraduate hospitality and tourism courses through work placement, 2007, Martin, E., and McCabe, S.(Sheffield Hallam University). The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network.
This case study explores the employability skills/needs of postgraduate students of hospitality and tourism courses. After evaluating students’ perceptions of the skills required by the hospitality and tourism industry and their expectations for skills development during their programme, interventions including assessed work experience placements and a ‘Developing Your Management Skills’ module were developed. . For further details and the full case study report go to the Employability Case Studies section of this website.
Employability and Experiential Learning, 2004, Moon, J., (University of Exeter), Link Newsletter (The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network), no. 11, pp 2-3.
The nature of employability and experiential learning and the relationship between them, and possible areas of learning – knowledge and skills - from work placements and ways of achieving these are discussed.
Employability and work-based learning, 2006, Little, B. et al, A Guide within the Higher Education Academy Learning and Employability Series, The Higher Education Academy.
This guide explores the learning that a student can gain from work experience, the term 'work-based learning' being taken to mean learning that is derived specifically from doing a job of work and taking on a workplace role. It considers the various ways in which it can be linked to a programme of study, and identifies a number of conditions that should be met if good quality learning, and maximum enhancement of initial graduate employability, is to result.
Engagement in Course Development by Employers Not Traditionally Involved in Higher Education: Student and Employer Perceptions of its Impact, 2007, Scesa, A., and Williams, R., London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London.
This is a systematic review of the literature about the impact of employer engagement in higher education (HE) curriculum development. It describes the benefits that work-based learning provides for academic staff as well as students and employers.
Enhancing employability through critical reflective learning, 2007, Buswell, J. and Tomkins, A. (University of Gloucestershire). The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network.
In order to prepare students for their future employment this case study explores the process of critical storytelling as a means of developing students’ reflective thinking skills, and is concerned with how students reconstruct learning from critical incidents experienced in the workplace to extract new meanings and new learning. The influences of peer support and mentoring in enhancing reflective learning are considered. The use of learning inventories that allow students to assess their strengths and weaknesses in relation to learning capabilities and emotional competence is also described. For further details and the full case study report go to the Employability Case Studies section of this website.
Enhancing Employability through Work-Based Assessment, 2007, Sheehan, C., and Waghorn, L. (Westminster Kingsway College). The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network.
This aim of this case study is to enhance the employability of Hospitality Management Foundation Arts Degree (FdA) students by offering a broader and more realistic framework for the assessment of skills, knowledge and analytical ability. In particular, the feasibility of developing problem-based assessment in the workplace, and an evaluation of the types of employer involvement in this, are examined. For further details and the full case study report go to the Employability Case Studies section of this website.
Enhancing Graduate Employability in Business and Management, Hospitality, Leisure, Sport, Tourism, 2006, Becket, N., and Kemp, P. (editors), Threshold Press (Available from the Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism (HLST) Subject Centre – contact: firstname.lastname@example.org).
This book, commissioned by the Higher Education Academy Subject Centres for HLST and Business, Management, Accountancy and Finance, will be of interest to all in HE involved in curriculum development and student employability. Consisting of a series of case studies, written by staff from the business, hospitality, leisure, sport and tourism communities, it ranges over: the enhancement of employability through the curriculum; helping students to gain maximum value from work placements through preparation and then reflection on their experiences; harnessing Personal Development Planning to enhance students’ employability; and helping students to understand and engage in the process of their skills development.
From Potential to Achievement: enhancing students’ value to employers, 2008, Beattie, I, Nixon, S., and Walker, C.. (Liverpool John Moores University). The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network.
This case study set out to examine and develop the employability agenda for a BA (Hons) Sport Development with Physical Education programme. The main focus was on the benefits of Work-Based Learning (WBL) and its contribution to the employability of the students. The employability perceptions of employers, students and WBL partners were evaluated. For further details and the full case study report go to the Employability Case Studies section of this website.
Future fit: preparing graduates for the world of work, 2009, the CBI and Universities UK.
This report defines employability, highlighting its importance to the current crop of graduates, and describes the role HEIs and employers can play to give students the best possible opportunities to build, refine and articulate their employability skills. It contains, information about what universities and employers are currently doing, including survey findings and case studies to illustrate good practice.
Graduate Employability: What do employers think and want?, 2008, Archer, W., and Davison, J.. London: Council for Industry and Education CIHE).
A study of nearly 250 large, medium and small employers for the CIHE highlights the skills and experiences employers look for when recruiting graduates. Included in the findings are that communication, teamwork, and integrity are the three most important “skills and capabilities” sought by employers but are well down in the employers’ satisfaction list. The largest satisfactions gaps are for commercial awareness and relevant work experience. Professional work experience overseas is particularly valued.
How Much Does Higher Education Enhance the Employability of Graduates, 2003, Mason, G., Williams, G,. Cranmer, S., and Guile, D. of NIESR and the Institute of Education. Bristol: HEFCE.
This study focuses on five subjects areas typical of the wide range of subjects taught in universities, namely: biological sciences, business studies, computer science/studies, design studies and history. Aspects of employability-enhancing strategies in departments in each subject area were considered including their approaches to skill development; employer involvement with programmes of study; student work experience; and other employability initiatives. Correlations were made with graduate employment outcomes incorporating the views of graduates employees and their managers.
Industry Experience Preparation, The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network.
This resource example is made available through HLST's new Teaching Resource Exchange, aimed at sharing resources specific to teaching HLST subjects for HE in FE. It enables the assessment of student preparation for their industry experience and covers a personal skills assessment and skills development activity, the sourcing of a suitable placement and the agreement of objectives for the report to be completed in the workplace.
International Hospitality Students' development of employability skills in the placement module, 2007, Jameson, S. (Leeds Metropolitan University). The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network.
This case study explores employability skills development in relation to the work placement experiences of postgraduate International Hospitality Management students. A number of pre-placement ”interventions” were tried as a means of developing skills appropriate and specific to, and increase students’ knowledge of, the international hospitality industry. For further details and the full case study report go to the Employability Case Studies section of this website.
Learning Through Work Placements and Beyond, 2006, Little, B., and Harvey, L., The Higher Education Careers Services Unit and the Higher Education Academy’s Work Placements Organisation Forum.
This study considers the effects work experience placements have on students’ learning and academic development and employability. It looks at students’ perceptions of their learning from curriculum linked placements, explores how their values and ethical positions are developed, and investigates the extent to which they try to transfer and build on such learning in their subsequent studies. Their personal development, focusing on interpersonal, personal and intellectual skills, abilities, subject knowledge and concern for ethical issues, and the effects of the placement experience on their future (career) intentions are discussed.
Linking Career Development Learning and Work Integrated Learning, 2010, Tyler, J., and Smith, M.. Graduate Market Trends, Summer 2010, pp 16-19.
This article decribes recent research into issues surrounding career development learning and its interface with work integrated learning (WiL) in Australia. WiL is learning which is embedded in the experience of work. It may be a formally endorsed component of a university course, extra curricular and complementary to studies, or independent of studies an opportunity for career practitioners to add value to the student experience through explicit, reflective career development learning opportunities. Career development learning (cdl) is learning about both the content and process of career development from a lifelong learning perspective involving ongoing reflection. The authors describe examples of good practice as identified by the research and make recommendations for academics, policy makers, career development practitioners, and others.
Make Your Experience Count, 2007, a work-shop report. The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Subject Centre.
When focusing on what constitutes an effective learning experience, some of the discussion, by staff and students, centred on the importance of providing students with adequate vocational experience in relation to the industries they were preparing to enter. In particular, the value of work placements and ways of enhancing their organisation and effectiveness were considered.
Managing Tourism Leisure and Sport Placements: Experiences from Swansea Metropolitan University, 2010, Jones. J., (Swansea Business School, SMU) Link Newsletter (The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network), no. 25, pp 21-23.
This article focuses on the nature and role of student placements, mainly overseas, undertaken by students engaged in leisure, tourism and sports programmes at Swansea Metropolitan University (SMU). It includes two detailed student case studies.
National Student Forum Annual Report, 2009, National Student Forum (NSF).
The second annual report of NSF describes students' current experiences in higher education and sets out priorities for change. Chapter 2, page 32, focuses on employability. From a student perspective it details the need, and makes the case, for an effective university-wide employability strategy, high profile careers services and high quality work placement programmes and makes recommendations to universities, and other parties.
A New Zealand Case Study of Cooperative Education in Sport,2005, Fleming, J. (Auckland University of technology) and Ferkins, L. (Unitec), The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network.
This case study looks at how employability is embedded and made explicit in cooperative education strategies, integrating classroom studies with placement experiences, in sport and recreation.
Outcomes from institutional audit, second series. Work-based and placement learning, and employability, 2008, QAA.
Based on the 59 institutional audit reports published between December 2004 and August 2006, this publication describes in some detail a widespread engagement with work-based and placement learning and the introduction of employability skills into the curriculum. Features of good practice at a number of HEIs are described.
Placements and Employability in Sport and Leisure Management, 2005, Keech, M. (University of Brighton), The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network.
This case study looks at the placement process for sports and leisure management students and the extent to which they benefit from the activities undertaken. The two important principles, identified as examples of good practice, are building experience of work into courses through partnerships with employers and embedding employability in the curriculum and making this explicit.
Reflective Portfolios for Work-based Learning, 2004, Graham, J., Link Newsletter (The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network), no. 11, pp 4-5.
This paper describes a work-based learning module available to Marketing, Tourism, Hospitality and Festival and Leisure Management students at Napier University that facilitates reflective practice and the recording of reflective learning.
Successful Foundation Degrees: The Role of Employers and Other Key Factors, 2009, Benyon, J., Mckee, B., Crewe, E., and Morris, K., University of Leicester Institute of Lifelong Learning.
This study looked at the factors influencing the success of foundation degrees developed locally by members of the Colleges–University of Leicester Network (CULN), a partnership of 18 FE colleges and 3 HEIs. The focus was on the role of employers, and increasing employability was a factor considered. One of the five case studies featured the Foundation Degree in Sport and Exercise Development run by Lincoln College.
Tourism and Hospitality Internship Experiences Overseas: a British Perspective, 2010, Busby, G.D., and Gibson, P.. Journal of the Higher Education Academy - Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Network (JoHLSTE), Vol. 9, no. 1.
This paper is based on the experiences of students, from British university programmes in tourism and hospitality, engaged in12 month overseas internships. These can provide a vocational dimension to what can be a predominantly academic curriculum and not only provide familiarity with professional practice, but raise graduate labour-market value and, it is argued, enhance the student’s maturity before returning to the final degree year.
Use of Students’ Reflections on their Placement Year, 2004, Williamson, P., (Leeds Metropolitan University), Link Newsletter (The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network), no. 11, pp 23-24.
In this article, the reflections of event management students about their placement year are used to gain insights into their experiences. The benefits arising out of this for student support including personal development planning, and learning and teaching strategy, in the context of enhancing students’ skills and personal development, are discussed.
UWIC Academy of Athletics: a Case Study on Addressing Employability Within the Total University Experience, 2005, Power, S. (University of Wales Institute Cardiff), The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network.
This case study examines how athletics students undertake coaching in a Junior Academy and how this experience enhances their employability. They are encouraged to record and reflect on their activities within a personal development planning framework.
The Value of Real Working Environments in Developing Employability, 2008, Farbrother, C., and Thomas, S. (Oxford Brookes University), Link Newsletter (The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network), no. 22, pp 25-27.
In reconsidering and reconfiguring the skills based learning of its hospitality students, the School of Services Management (SSM) at Bournemouth University, has moved away from the traditional training restaurant approach delivery of the practical curriculum. The working environment chosen to prepare students for employment by equipping them with appropriate sets of skills, knowledge and personal attributes was the University’s staff dining facilities. Students are involved in all operational and management aspects of the restaurant, encompassing stores, production, back of house, support office and food service functions for a total of 10 weeks full time through the first and second years. Second year students take on the role of a management team and operate all aspects of the business unit.
“We have a Story to Tell” FDTL Meta Project: From PDP to CPD, 2006, Tomkins, A.,
Watkins, S., and Buswell, J. (University of Gloucestershire). Link Newsletter (The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network), No. 15, pp 8-10.
This on-going collaborative FDTL project focuses on the development of support mechanisms, based on a reflective and active learning approach, “to encourage deep learning in the contexts of work placements and volunteering opportunities” for HLST students.
Work-based learning: illuminating the higher education landscape, 2006, Nixon, I., Smith, K., Stafford, R., and Camm, S.. York: The Higher Education Academy.
Having defined work-based learning as "learning which accredits or extends the workplace skills and abilities of employees", this report summarises its current state-of-play in higher education. Examples of successful work-based learning initiatives in higher education, including Foundation Degrees and the provision of part-time undergraduate and postgraduate courses, are given. The report focuses on the issues and challenges for HE to address.
Audit Tools, 2008, Higher Education Academy Centre for Bioscience.
The range of audit tools is available to all academics and can generally be tailored to the needs of a specific course. Of note are the ones relating to Employability, Work Placement, Work Related learning and Enterprise (entrepreneurship/business enterprise).Employability Card Sorts, The Higher Education Academy.
Designing and using a card sort can be an effective way to help students and staff to reflect on, assess, and make choices about employability issues and initiatives. Currently available card sorts can be tailored to meet the differing needs of staff.European Framework for Work Experience (EFWE), a pan-European project
EFWE is a Europe wide project concerning the development of a European standard for the assessment of undergraduate and postgraduate students' employability skills developed through paid, unpaid and voluntary work experience undertaken whilst studying. Available from the website are downloadable tools and materials designed to help HE work placement co-ordinators maximise the benefit of work experience for their students.
ASET, a professional body for work-based learning practitioners, provides universities and colleges with expertise and advice to support programmes that integrate periods of academic study with periods of relevant work in an external organisation. Academics have access to a meetings programme and publications that include a newsletter. Membership is open to institutions and individuals.
ATHE is the Subject Association for tourism in HE in the UK, and is of interest to all who wish to: promote the development of tourism as a subject of study in the UK; achieve high standards in learning, teaching and research; and benefit from liaison with employers and other interested bodies. Some of its activities focus on employability issues including tourism placements.
The CHME has a special interest group, Placement Advisers for Tourism and Hospitality (PATH), for those involved in supervised work experience/internship elements of programmes.
The GEES Employability, Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Wiki, 2007, The Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (GEES).These wiki pages contain information, tools and resources on Employability, Entrepreneurship and Enterprise (EEE). Inevitably there is some emphasis on the needs of the GEES community but much of the content is generic. Users are invited to contribute to the pages by sharing their teaching experience of EEE, adding information considered to be important and relevant, eg raising questions / issues for discussion, and adding profiles of students who have set up a business, conducted interesting work experience etc.
Placenet provides a forum for higher education placement officers and tutors who wish to enhance the organisation, management and provision of quality vocational experience for their students.
AGCAS is the professional association for higher education (HE) careers practitioners. Part of its work is to generate up-to-date information, advice and guidance products for careers advisers and others interested in the employability of graduates. These pages give access to a variety of resources in various media of benefit to all those working with students engaged in career decision-making and self-marketing. Academics can purchase resources but are initially recommended to contact their campus careers service. They may be able to view and assess them there and gain advice and support when using them. See the Media round up for news items relating to HE and graduate employment.
The work of some CETLs is designed, in whole or in part, to enhance aspects of career preparation through learning, including work-based learning, and teaching.
Employability and Employee Learning,The Higher Education Academy.
These web pages describe the work of the Employability and Employee Learning (EEL) team whose remit is “to influence and enhance the student learning experience by facilitating and brokering networks of projects, institutions, individual academics and subject centres in the areas of employability, employer engagement and employee learning.” It includes a keyword search facility to locate HEA employability resources.
EvidenceNet, The Higher Education Academy.
This resource is designed to promote and explore the use of practice- and research-based evidence in teaching and learning in Higher Education. Phase 1, now available, includes a searchable repository of resources, events and networks from the Academy and beyond.Projects web pages,The Higher Education Academy.
Resource Guide in Employability, The HE Academy Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network.
After an introduction to the whole field of student employability this extensive guide provides information about the range of materials and resources available to provide support to staff seeking to embed employability within the curriculum. The resources are mainly generic, including curriculum tools, skills-related reports, employability project, and work experience and placements, but there is section encompassing HLST-specific resources.